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有關阿原記事本

阿原,江易原,記下一些事情跟朋友們分享,也留下自己學習與成長的紀錄。教學課程請見 "阿原小站" 還有阿原開放式課程阿原直播與教學影片阿原生活影片阿原創新顧問公司阿原科幻小說-NC1543、教師教學社團:開源軟體與教學應用
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2023/01/31

CNS 中的食品取樣方法 sampling/sampling procedure of food

 正在編講義,先把資料準備好



---------------下方是「抽樣」-------------------------

CNS 2779   Z4006

  • 計數值檢驗抽樣程序及抽樣表(被CNS 2779-1取代)
  • Sampling Procedure and Tables for Inspection by Attributes


  • CNS 2779-1   Z4006-1

  • 計數值檢驗抽樣程序-第1部:依允收品質界限(AQL)檢索之逐批檢驗抽樣方案
  • Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes − Part 1: Sampling schemes indexed by acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection



  • CNS 7293   N4072(彩色版)

  • 可可豆-抽樣法
  • Cocoa beans − Sampling


  • CNS 9445   Z4023

  • 計量值檢驗抽樣程序及抽樣表(被CNS 9445-1取代)
  • Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Variables for Percent


  • CNS 9445-1   Z4023-1

  • 計量值檢驗抽樣程序-第1部:單一品質特性與單一允收品質界限(AQL)逐批檢驗依AQL檢索之單次抽樣計畫
  • Sampling procedures for inspection by variables − Part 1: Specification for single sampling plans indexed by acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection for a single quality characteristic and a single AQL



  • CNS 16139-4   Z4102-4

  • 統計學-詞彙與符號-第4部︰抽樣調查
  • Statistics − Vocabulary and symbols − Part 4: Survey sampling




  • ---------------------下方是與食品「取樣」-------------------------------------------


     CNS 970   N6014

  • 食品罐頭檢驗法–取樣
  • Method of Test for Canned Food-Sampling
  •  

     CNS 993   R3028

  • 玻璃容器之取樣法
  • Methods for sampling of glass containers
  •  

     CNS 2770-1   N4024-1

  • 飼料檢驗法(取樣)
  • Method of Test for Feeds : Sampling
  •  

     CNS 6252   N6127

  • 醃漬食品檢驗法(取樣)(被CNS 6246取代)
  • Method of test for preserved vegetable: Sampling (replaced by CNS 6246)
  •  

    CNS 6257   N6132

  • 肉及肉製品檢驗法-取樣之一般規定
  • Method of test for meat and meat products - General rules for sampling
  •  

      CNS 7261   K6660

  • 油漆、清漆及有關物料用液態油類、脂肪酸及聚合脂肪酸取樣法
  • Method of Sampling Liquid Oils, Fatty Acids, and Polymerized Fatty Acids Commonly Used in Paints Varnishes, and Related Materials
  •   CNS 9304   K6726

  • 動植物原油取樣法
  • Sampling of Crude Oils and Fats
  •   CNS 13476   N4163

  • 穀類檢驗法–取樣
  • Method of Test for Grains - Sampling
  •  

     CNS 13511   N4169

  • 新鮮水果與蔬菜檢驗法–取樣
  • Method of Test for Fresh Furits and Vegetable - Sampling
  •  

     

     CNS 15392   N4202

  • 咖啡取樣器
  • Coffee triers
  •  

     CNS 15394   N4203

  • 袋裝咖啡生豆-取樣
  • Green coffee in bags − Sampling
  •  

     CNS 15406   N6393

  • 帶襯箱裝即溶咖啡-取樣
  • Instant coffee in bulk units with liners - Sampling
  •  

     

     

     

     

     

     

    The EU regulation 2073/2005: microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, cites the methods of ISO 18593:2018 Microbiology of the food chain — Horizontal methods for surface sampling

     

     I read this review article:

     Processing environment monitoring in low moisture food production facilities: Are we looking for the right microorganisms?  (Open Access)

     International Journal of Food Microbiology
    Volume 356, 16 October 2021, 109351

    In the article: 

     Microbial tests that are commonly used include aerobic mesophilic counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts or yeast and mould counts (Article 5, EU Regulation 2073/2005).

     

    1.4. PEM in guidelines and legislation

    PEM is widely recognized as a requirement in the production of many types of food and is mentioned in numerous publications. For example, in the European Commission Regulation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (European Commission, 2005), as well as highlighting a range of food safety criteria, it is noted in Article 5 that: “Samples shall be taken from processing areas and equipment used in food production, when such sampling is necessary for ensuring that the criteria are met”. The regulation goes on to specifically identify ready-to-eat (RTE) foods which may pose a Listeria monocytogenes risk, and dried infant formula that may pose a risk from Salmonella spp. and Cronobacter spp., as two product types where PEM is required. This regulation also gives some guidance on the importance of sampling when undertaking PEM and points to ISO 18593 as a standard for the swabbing examination (ISO, 2018).

     

     

     Thus, I searched Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 (updated: 2020-03-08)

      Article 5

    Specific rules for testing and sampling

    1.   The analytical methods and the sampling plans and methods in Annex I shall be applied as reference methods.

    2.   Samples shall be taken from processing areas and equipment used in food production, when such sampling is necessary for ensuring that the criteria are met. In that sampling the ISO standard 18593 shall be used as a reference method.

     

     And I checked this standard

     

    ISO 18593:2018
    Microbiology of the food chain — Horizontal methods for surface sampling

    Abstract

    This document specifies horizontal methods for sampling techniques using contact plates, stick swabs, sponges and cloths on surfaces in the food chain environment in order to detect and enumerate culturable microorganisms such as pathogenic or non-pathogenic bacteria or yeasts and moulds.

    NOTE The term "environment" means any item in contact with the food product or likely to represent a contamination or recontamination source; for example, material, premises or operators.

    This document does not apply to the validation of cleaning and disinfection procedures.

    This document does not apply to sampling techniques for primary production samples, which are covered by ISO 13307. Sampling techniques for carcasses are covered by ISO 17604. Sampling techniques for analysis of noroviruses and hepatitis A viruses are covered by ISO 15216-1.

    This document does not give advice on sampling frequency, the number of sampling points, or the need to rotate sampling points, as these are chosen on a case-by-case basis.

     

     -------------------------------

    I also got this 


    (Open access)

    European survey and evaluation of sampling methods recommended by the standard EN ISO 18593 for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas fluorescens on industrial surfaces

    FEMS Microbiology Letters, Volume 367, Issue 7, April 2020, fnaa057, https://doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnaa057
    Published:
    08 April 2020

     

     

    2023/01/29

    20230129 三千公尺再創近年新紀錄 15 m 18 s I ran 3000 meters for 15 m 18 s, a new record in recent years

     

     


    ---比上次跑 15 m 32s,(感覺上氣不接下氣)

     

     

     

     這次相對體能比較好,最後一圈還可以加速。
     

     iming Description: Start Time: 2023年1月29日 17:20:00

    Total Time: 00:15:23.21

    12 Laps

    Lap Description: Lap 12... <Stopped>
    Lap Time: 00:00:05.21
    Lap Total Time: 00:15:23.21

    Lap Description: Lap 11...
    Lap Time: 00:00:00.00
    Lap Total Time: 00:15:18.00

    Lap Description: Lap 10... <Stopped>
    Lap Time: 00:01:21.38----最後一圈,衝了,表示還有體力

    Lap Total Time: 00:15:18.00-----近年新紀錄

    Lap Description: Lap 9...
    Lap Time: 00:01:33.24
    Lap Total Time: 00:13:56.62

    Lap Description: Lap 8...
    Lap Time: 00:01:35.85
    Lap Total Time: 00:12:23.38

    Lap Description: Lap 7...
    Lap Time: 00:01:35.88
    Lap Total Time: 00:10:47.53

    Lap Description: Lap 6...
    Lap Time: 00:01:32.99
    Lap Total Time: 00:09:11.65

    Lap Description: Lap 5...
    Lap Time: 00:01:32.29
    Lap Total Time: 00:07:38.66

    Lap Description: Lap 4...
    Lap Time: 00:01:30.77
    Lap Total Time: 00:06:06.37

    Lap Description: Lap 3...
    Lap Time: 00:01:30.53
    Lap Total Time: 00:04:35.60

    Lap Description: Lap 2...
    Lap Time: 00:01:32.01
    Lap Total Time: 00:03:05.07

    Lap Description: Lap 1...
    Lap Time: 00:01:33.06----錯覺,以為第一圈沒啥衝勁,大約是 1 m 40 - 42 s, 沒想到是 1m33s
    Lap Total Time: 00:01:33.06

     

     

     

    既然學校某些項目要求要用 gapps, 那阿原服從,把時間與情緒留給更重要的事情


     雖然不認同,但不需要去反對,阿原的時間與情緒,要留給更重要的事情。

     


     請按照以下步驟用gapps登入GoogleMeet

     


    (請以學校gapps帳號開啟)

     


    就把密碼改成自己熟悉的密碼


    原來學校在 2015-06 就幫師生建立 GAPPS




    食品回收與撤回,Food recall vs withdrawal 不同國家的定義不同,我們看英國的定義 Food incidents, product withdrawals and recalls 及紐澳、美國

     

     英國食品標準局之說明

     Food incidents, product withdrawals and recalls

     

    Product withdrawals and recalls

    As a result of a food incident, a food product may have to be withdrawn or recalled. 

    A withdrawal is when unsafe food is removed from the supply chain before it has reached consumers. 

    A recall is when unsafe food is removed from the supply chain and consumers are advised to take appropriate action, for example to return or dispose of the unsafe food.



    澳大利亞

    FOOD RECALLS AND WITHDRAWALS

    What is a food recall?
    A food recall is used to remove from sale a food that poses an immediate risk to public health and safety. Food recalls are usually initiated by the manufacturer, distributor or importer and must be reported to state and commonwealth government authorities



    What is a withdrawal?
    A withdrawal is action taken to remove a food product from sale even if there is no public health and safety issue. This is usually done for two reasons:

    1. the product has a quality defect or has a labelling irregularity that is not a public health risk.

    2. as a precaution, pending further investigation of a potential public health risk. If a public
    health risk is established, then the food must be recalled.
    Withdrawals do not need to be notified to authorities.


    New Zealand Food Grocery Council

    https://www.fgc.org.nz

    https://www.fgc.org.nz/product-recall-withdrawal/



    雜誌

    Market Withdrawal Vs. Recall: What’s the Difference?



    GFSI 2020.1

    Product recall

    The removal by a supplier of product from the supply chain that has been deemed to be unsafe and has been sold to the end consumer, or is with retailers or caterers and is available for sale.

    Product withdrawal

    The removal of product by a supplier from the supply chain that has been deemed to be unsafe, which has not been placed on the market for purchase by the end consumer.




    美國 FDA  

    Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts



    2023/01/27

    Hoarding disorder--某長輩及其後代的囤積症/儲物症

     


     

    這是相對可以看的照片(其他不方便公開)。推測,這些自行醃漬的食品,已經多年了,建議 A 長輩超過一年沒有動過,就要丟掉,但,不聽勸告,還反駁說:戰爭時才有東西吃。我就說,戰爭時可以吃醬菜? (算了,這位長輩腦容量有限,不知道食品與營養的觀念與戰爭的情況)

     仔細分享,長輩夫妻兩人,只有一個有症狀,兩位同住的後代,只有一位有症狀。

     
    沒日沒夜的囤積物品,無法斷捨離?認識「儲物症」
    林希陶 ・2020/05/28

     依照這文章,阿原認為其圖表中 4 號 到 5 號的嚴重性。

    (阿原家裡的髒亂,大約是 3 號,但阿原逐漸丟東西,所以不是囤積症,但老婆的物品也多)

     

     

    就引用網路上醫師的資料(合理使用)

     認識囤積症 林俊媛醫師

     

     


     


     

     


     


     是的,阿原幫忙丟東西,遇到反彈

     


     

    -----------------------

     參考文章

     



    2021/01/09 預計幫長輩安裝熱水增壓馬達及水錘吸收器

    2021/01/09 預計幫長輩更換瓦斯爐及管線的準備筆記

    20201106 家庭食安:長輩使用冰箱,能塞則塞,不留空間--原因可能不是表面那麼簡單

    2020/02/24 長輩的心結:想抱孫、等接班?請先面對疑似 autism/social withdrawl:逃避是無法解決問題

    2020/01/28 消防署統計火災三大原因,這長輩家都有--上帝保佑他們

    2020/01/26 室內吸菸又燒香,還怕沒機會得癌症嗎? 

    2020/01/01 長輩:減鈉鹽 600 克 90 元好貴 (一般 1000 克 14 元),阿原:可能是因為笨老人的命與健康不值錢
     

    2019/09/14 公視新聞:台灣「繭居族」案例有增加趨勢----阿原見到的例子及一定會發生的悲劇

    2019/05/03 否認、逃避無法解決問題,家中有成年精障者,請儘快就醫與尋求專業協助


    2019/02/01 終於,幫長輩的廁所加裝安全把手/安全手把

    2017/07/11夢到比基尼美女,還有觀世音菩薩救了低血糖昏迷的長輩一命!

    2014/11/14 開食品行的長輩找阿原幫忙--玩假的,不要浪費我的時間

     

     


    2023/01/26

    20230126 年初五跑三千公尺 15 m 56 s I ran 3000 meters for 15 m 56 s and passed the Taiwan military fitness standard

     快走 20 min 當暖身

    單槓 8 下

    跑三千

    再拉單槓 4/1/2 下


     



     

    Timing Description: Start Time: 2023年1月26日 18:20:30

    Total Time: 00:15:56.76

    15 Laps   扣掉第一圈及最後一圈,中間 13 圈速度相當穩定,我很滿意
    Lap Description: Lap 15... <Stopped>
    Lap Time: 00:00:54.14----最後一圈加速,表示整體跑下來,游刃有餘,不是喘不過氣

    Lap Total Time: 00:15:56.76

    Lap Description: Lap 14...
    Lap Time: 00:01:03.48
    Lap Total Time: 00:15:02.62

    Lap Description: Lap 13...
    Lap Time: 00:01:04.49
    Lap Total Time: 00:13:59.14

    Lap Description: Lap 12...
    Lap Time: 00:01:04.46
    Lap Total Time: 00:12:54.65

    Lap Description: Lap 11...
    Lap Time: 00:01:03.69
    Lap Total Time: 00:11:50.19

    Lap Description: Lap 10...
    Lap Time: 00:01:04.12
    Lap Total Time: 00:10:46.50

    Lap Description: Lap 9...
    Lap Time: 00:01:04.88
    Lap Total Time: 00:09:42.38

    Lap Description: Lap 8...
    Lap Time: 00:01:03.15
    Lap Total Time: 00:08:37.50

    Lap Description: Lap 7...
    Lap Time: 00:01:03.66
    Lap Total Time: 00:07:34.35

    Lap Description: Lap 6...
    Lap Time: 00:01:02.58
    Lap Total Time: 00:06:30.69

    Lap Description: Lap 5...
    Lap Time: 00:01:04.74
    Lap Total Time: 00:05:28.11

    Lap Description: Lap 4...
    Lap Time: 00:01:03.38
    Lap Total Time: 00:04:23.37

    Lap Description: Lap 3...
    Lap Time: 00:01:03.49
    Lap Total Time: 00:03:19.99

    Lap Description: Lap 2...
    Lap Time: 00:01:05.76
    Lap Total Time: 00:02:16.50

    Lap Description: Lap 1...
    Lap Time: 00:01:10.74
    Lap Total Time: 00:01:10.74-----第一圈跑起來很舒服,以為只有 5 8 -59 秒,沒想到是 70 秒,可能是天色昏暗,感覺失誤。

    大人可以抽菸/喝酒/用手機,為何小朋友不行?我們有辦法說服小朋友跟孩子嗎?

     

     


     
    Mussi Katz
    Smoking

     https://www.flickr.com/photos/mussikatz/50411241621/

     ---------------------------

     我們家寶貝目前小學四年級,使用手機的時間,是被管制的。

    孩子看到阿原爸爸,多數時間掛在電腦前,沒有電腦,也是使用手機。

    做個不恰當的比喻,孩子或年輕學生,看到大人抽菸,反問,為何成年人可以抽菸,但限制我們不行?(是的,多數抽菸者,家中長輩也是抽菸)

    相同的情況,當孩子看到大人們都在使用手機,為何限制小朋友使用手機?

     

    抽菸不用說,阿原不抽菸,阿原的父母不抽菸,阿原的阿公抽菸,阿嬤不抽菸。

    手機不用說,阿原常用,主要是

    1. 分享網路給筆電

    2. 與朋友聯絡 (極度使用 LINE,現在擔心沒有備案,如帳號被駭)

    3. 跑步時「聽」YouTube

     

     同理,孩子玩手機,有他自己的樂趣。

    相對,(這無法評論對或錯)如果我們的官方教育(指 與家庭教育或人類自學切開)

    敢放棄現在的教育方式?(假設不考慮教育官員、職員、教師的工作權,因為,這是阻礙教育改革兩大考量[也可以說阻礙]。一個是人事[收入與退休金],一個是保守的腦袋)

     如果不限制到學校上課,順應環境與趨勢,讓家長與孩子選擇,就像台灣現在的環境(數位、網路、資訊流通)

     

     

    好文:歐洲之聲,博明:驚濤駭浪中的自由:臺灣準備好了嗎?

    驚濤駭浪中的自由:臺灣準備好了嗎?
    博明文 /博明    
    2023 年 1 月 16 日
    在北京觀察, 專文, 政經論壇    

    阿原很少看主動電視,新年期間陪長輩們,包括去拜訪長輩們,看到的電視,盡是沒有營養的內容,這是國民平均水準,不能怪電視台,電視台要生存,不能只唱陽春白雪。

     從范疇的 FB https://www.facebook.com/2020bluesea/

     看到這訊息

     

     

    當 NHK, BBC 在 YouTube 的新聞是討論德國支援烏克蘭戰車,而台灣電視新聞盡是國五塞車、年菜爭議、樂透刮刮樂等雞皮蒜毛小貓小狗的新聞...這是人均三萬五國家的新聞水準?

      


    取自新聞頻道在 YouTube  

    I state the fair use here.

     

    2021/06/11

    恭喜國人:當媒體狂報導鼻屎大小的新聞(診所為名人提前打疫苗),表示台灣沒有大事

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    2023/01/25

    紐西蘭的 Ministry for Primary Industries,兩個台灣官方翻譯不同,哪個適當?阿原分析給您聽

     

     Ministry for Primary Industries

     

     


     https://export.baphiq.gov.tw/coa/links_idx.php?link_type=0&act=getlink&start=60&order=c_name&d=DE

         紐西蘭主要產業部-------一看就知道翻譯有問題

     ---primary 是「主要」沒有錯,但是這裡是指農林漁牧這類的工作,不能翻譯為「主要」,而是「初級」

     

     行政院農業委員會全球資訊網  紐西蘭水產品管理制度介紹

     ----初級產業部(Ministry for Primary Industries,  MPI)

     

     紐西蘭牛肉網

     -----紐西蘭初級產業部(Ministry of Primary Industries,簡稱MPI)

     

    從紐西蘭網頁看到,是農林漁牧,如果阿原翻譯,會是「農林漁牧」部,但怪怪的,所以接受「初級產業」部的翻譯

    與 GFSI 聯盟的企業:GFSI welcomes new members to the coaliation of action

     

     

     

     



    The screenshots are from GFSI website, I state the fair use here.

    Kersia, McDonalds, and YUM! Brands Demonstrate Commitment to Delivering Safe Food to People Everywhere   Paris, 26 September 2022

     

    讀者看到麥當勞有加入聯盟,會問怎麼沒有肯德基?  事實上,那是 Yum 集團

     

     http://citizenship.yum.com/

     不過目前找不到完整的對供應商要求

     

    網路資料整理:全聯實業股份有限公司社會責任報告書

     

     全聯實業股份有限公司社會責任報告書

    http://event.pxmart.com.tw/activity/CSR/pxreport/index.html#url

     

     編講義,適合引用的資料

     

    網路資料:統一超商對供應商要求及企業社會責任報告書

     

    統一超商 報告書下載

     https://www.7-11.com.tw/company/csr/csrreports.aspx

     

    統一超商   2020 企業社會責任報告書

     

    2021 年永續報告書  CH03  承諾產銷永續   

    -------------------------

    編講義時,適合引用這些資料

    2023/01/24

    I collect some Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) from US FDA

     Laboratory Methods (Food) 

     
    Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM)

     

     

     Aerobic Plate Count--裏面計算培養皿上的菌落,跟TFDA很像

     

     Salmonella

     

    Listeria monocytogenes

     

    加拿大的食品添加物--網頁整理

     

     Food Additives

     

     11. List of Permitted Preservatives (Lists of Permitted Food Additives)

     

    20230123 年初二,20230123 初二跑三千公尺 16 m 24 s I ran 3000 meters for 16 m 24s and passed the Taiwan military fitness standard

     

     


     

    先快走暖身 20 min

    單槓九下--影片未來補上

    測三千公尺

     

     

     Timing Description: Start Time: 2023年1月23日 17:42:33

    Total Time: 00:16:23.95

    15 Laps---大致來說,每一圈在 1 m 041 -08 s (扣掉最後一圈)

    Lap Description: Lap 15... <Stopped>
    Lap Time: 00:00:58.80-----最後一圈加快,表示還有體力,不會喘不過氣
    Lap Total Time: 00:16:23.95

    Lap Description: Lap 14...
    Lap Time: 00:01:06.54
    Lap Total Time: 00:15:25.15

    Lap Description: Lap 13...
    Lap Time: 00:01:08.31
    Lap Total Time: 00:14:18.61

    Lap Description: Lap 12...
    Lap Time: 00:01:06.24
    Lap Total Time: 00:13:10.30

    Lap Description: Lap 11...
    Lap Time: 00:01:06.31
    Lap Total Time: 00:12:04.06

    Lap Description: Lap 10...
    Lap Time: 00:01:06.60
    Lap Total Time: 00:10:57.75

    Lap Description: Lap 9...
    Lap Time: 00:01:05.88
    Lap Total Time: 00:09:51.15

    Lap Description: Lap 8...
    Lap Time: 00:01:06.23
    Lap Total Time: 00:08:45.27

    Lap Description: Lap 7...
    Lap Time: 00:01:05.80
    Lap Total Time: 00:07:39.04

    Lap Description: Lap 6...
    Lap Time: 00:01:04.87
    Lap Total Time: 00:06:33.24

    Lap Description: Lap 5...
    Lap Time: 00:01:05.28
    Lap Total Time: 00:05:28.37

    Lap Description: Lap 4...
    Lap Time: 00:01:05.05
    Lap Total Time: 00:04:23.09

    Lap Description: Lap 3...
    Lap Time: 00:01:06.57
    Lap Total Time: 00:03:18.04

    Lap Description: Lap 2...
    Lap Time: 00:01:07.08
    Lap Total Time: 00:02:11.47

    Lap Description: Lap 1...
    Lap Time: 00:01:04.39
    Lap Total Time: 00:01:04.39

     

    邏輯思考訓練:五百年後的神像,可能是文官穿西裝、武將穿迷彩服拿自動步槍?

     讀者可以先看阿原之前的文章

    2020/11/06 邏輯思考訓練:一萬年前的人作惡死後下地獄,會見到極先進的科技,但現代人下地獄,卻像看到古裝劇

    簡單說,神像的外觀,可能是漢地這一兩千年的模樣,比較可信的歷史,可能是秦始皇兵馬俑的樣貌。如果從考古學家學判定,人在八千到一萬年前進入農耕社會,那個年代的社會制度與文官武將,可能不是我們看到神像的樣子(武官穿鎧甲與拿兵器)

    相對,五百年後,地球還能住人,假如人類還有現在類似的生活,那文官武將,可能不是現在的外觀,但同理可證,我們現代人穿西裝拜的神像,是過去一兩千年的樣子,未來的人會讓

     


     2023-01-14 於鹿港天后宮拍照,感謝神明支持

     


     From flickr (public domain)  Mikhail Kamarov  us-marines-m4a1

     

     


      From flickr (public domain)

     

     

    科學家使用間接方法推算過去幾十萬年地球的溫度,是否可以推斷過去幾千年人類天才,庸才,笨蛋的比例?

     

    (阿原喜歡這段文字)

    From flickr    thomas stein  mediocrity  CC-BY-SA-2.0

     

     --------------------------------------------------------

     

     現在是兔年初三的凌晨四點 (睡到一半醒來),想到這樣的點子

    1. 當地球科學家使用間接科學正確,提出推斷的結果,如過去幾十萬年地球溫度的變化

    2. 考古學家發表報告,說明某時期人類的生活情況(使用石器、銅器、鐵器、火藥等)

    阿原想到,可否有適當的方法,找出過去人類天才,庸才,笨蛋的比例?

    阿原 認為,比例可能跟現代人相近,但只是猜測,阿原沒有證據