Archived - Code of Practice for Minimally Processed Ready-to-Eat Fruit and VegetablesPart III Processing Controls
3.6 Product Temperature During Processing
Product temperature should be controlled during processing to minimize the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.
Numerous factors may affect product temperature during processing including: variations in the temperature of incoming produce; fluctuations in ambient temperature; and changes in wash water temperature. If the product is packaged at elevated temperature, there may be an unacceptable time lag before the product reaches refrigeration temperature. This could result in growth of microbial pathogens to unacceptable levels. The processing should be controlled to ensure that product temperature is reduced to refrigeration temperature (4°C or less) within an acceptable time frame.
The processor should demonstrate the control of product temperature through one of the following programs or equivalent:
Guidelines for Time & Temperature Requirements for Potentially Hazardous Foods –A Guide for the Conveyance Industry and Environmental Health Officers (EHO) (PDF 檔)
Table 1 –Guidelines for Time & Temperature Requirements for Potentially Hazardous Foods
Food preparation at flight kitchen, food caterer, food processor or onboard conveyance
>4°C (40°F) for short periods of time which cannot be > 2 hours (total time from start to finish of preparation)
Freezing offruits and vegetablesAn agribusiness alternative for rural and semi-rural areas (PDF 檔) FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN 158, 2005
Pre-process handling and operationsFreezing preservation of fruits can only help retain the inherent quality present initiallyin a product since the process does not improve the quality characteristics of rawmaterials. Therefore, quality level of the raw materials prior to freezing is the majorconsideration for successful freezing. Washing and cutting generally results in losseswhen applied after thawing. Thus, fruits should be prepared prior to the freezingprocess in terms of peeling, slicing or cutting. Freezing preservation does not requirespecific unit operations for cleaning, rinsing, sorting, peeling, and cutting of fruits(Spiess, 1984).
21 CFR PART 117
CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21
Subpart A--General Provisions
§ 117.1 - Applicability and status.
§ 117.3 - Definitions.
§ 117.4 - Qualifications of individuals who manufacture, process, pack, or hold food.
§ 117.5 - Exemptions.
§ 117.7 - Applicability of subparts C, D, and G of this part to a facility solely engaged in the storage of unexposed packaged food.
§ 117.8 - Applicability of subpart B of this part to the off-farm packing and holding of raw agricultural commodities.
§ 117.9 - Records required for this subpart.
Subpart B--Current Good Manufacturing Practice
§ 117.10 - Personnel.
§ 117.20 - Plant and grounds.
§ 117.35 - Sanitary operations.
§ 117.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.
§ 117.40 - Equipment and utensils.
§ 117.80 - Processes and controls.
§ 117.93 - Warehousing and distribution.
§ 117.95 - Holding and distribution of human food by-products for use as animal food.
§ 117.110 - Defect action levels.
Subpart C--Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls
§ 117.126 - Food safety plan.
§ 117.130 - Hazard analysis.
§ 117.135 - Preventive controls.
- Circumstances in which the owner, operator, or agent in charge of a
manufacturing/processing facility is not required to implement a
§ 117.137 - Provision of assurances required under 117.136(a)(2), (3), and (4).
§ 117.139 - Recall plan.
§ 117.140 - Preventive control management components.
§ 117.145 - Monitoring.
§ 117.150 - Corrective actions and corrections.
§ 117.155 - Verification.
§ 117.160 - Validation.
§ 117.165 - Verification of implementation and effectiveness.
§ 117.170 - Reanalysis.
§ 117.180 - Requirements applicable to a preventive controls qualified individual and a qualified auditor.
§ 117.190 - Implementation records required for this subpart.
Subpart D--Modified Requirements
§ 117.201 - Modified requirements that apply to a qualified facility.
§ 117.206 - Modified requirements that apply to a facility solely engaged in the storage of unexposed packaged food.
Subpart E--Withdrawal of a Qualified Facility Exemption
§ 117.251 - Circumstances that may lead FDA to withdraw a qualified facility exemption.
§ 117.254 - Issuance of an order to withdraw a qualified facility exemption.
§ 117.257 - Contents of an order to withdraw a qualified facility exemption.
§ 117.260 - Compliance with, or appeal of, an order to withdraw a qualified facility exemption.
§ 117.264 - Procedure for submitting an appeal.
§ 117.267 - Procedure for requesting an informal hearing.
§ 117.270 - Requirements applicable to an informal hearing.
§ 117.274 - Presiding officer for an appeal and for an informal hearing.
§ 117.277 - Timeframe for issuing a decision on an appeal.
§ 117.280 - Revocation of an order to withdraw a qualified facility exemption.
§ 117.284 - Final agency action.
§ 117.287 - Reinstatement of a qualified facility exemption that was withdrawn.
Subpart F--Requirements Applying to Records That Must Be Established and Maintained
§ 117.301 - Records subject to the requirements of this subpart.
§ 117.305 - General requirements applying to records.
§ 117.310 - Additional requirements applying to the food safety plan.
§ 117.315 - Requirements for record retention.
§ 117.320 - Requirements for official review.
§ 117.325 - Public disclosure.
§ 117.330 - Use of existing records.
§ 117.335 - Special requirements applicable to a written assurance.
Subpart G--Supply-Chain Program
§ 117.405 - Requirement to establish and implement a supply-chain program.
§ 117.410 - General requirements applicable to a supply-chain program.
§ 117.415 - Responsibilities of the receiving facility.
§ 117.420 - Using approved suppliers.
§ 117.425 - Determining appropriate supplier verification activities (including determining the frequency of conducting the activity).
§ 117.430 - Conducting supplier verification activities for raw materials and other ingredients.
§ 117.435 - Onsite audit.
§ 117.475 - Records documenting the supply-chain program.