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食品安全 自由軟體

有關阿原記事本

阿原,江易原,記下一些事情跟朋友們分享,也留下自己學習與成長的紀錄。教學課程網請見 "阿原小站" 還有阿原開放式課程以、阿原教學影片阿原生活影片阿原創新顧問公司
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2019/08/30

網路資料整理:食品衛生之水果加工溫度

剛好跟朋友聊到水果、果汁產品出口到美國,加工過程的溫度,阿原找了資料如下:



加拿大衛生單位

Archived - Code of Practice for Minimally Processed Ready-to-Eat Fruit and VegetablesPart III Processing Controls


3.6 Product Temperature During Processing

Product temperature should be controlled during processing to minimize the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.

Numerous factors may affect product temperature during processing including: variations in the temperature of incoming produce; fluctuations in ambient temperature; and changes in wash water temperature. If the product is packaged at elevated temperature, there may be an unacceptable time lag before the product reaches refrigeration temperature. This could result in growth of microbial pathogens to unacceptable levels. The processing should be controlled to ensure that product temperature is reduced to refrigeration temperature (4°C or less) within an acceptable time frame.

The processor should demonstrate the control of product temperature through one of the following programs or equivalent:



加拿大

Guidelines for Time & Temperature Requirements for Potentially Hazardous Foods –A Guide for the Conveyance Industry and Environmental Health Officers (EHO) (PDF 檔)

Table 1 –Guidelines for Time & Temperature Requirements for Potentially Hazardous Foods

Food preparation at flight kitchen, food caterer, food processor or onboard conveyance

>4°C (40°F) for short periods of time which cannot be > 2 hours (total time from start to finish of preparation)


Freezing offruits and vegetablesAn agribusiness alternative for rural and semi-rural areas (PDF 檔)  FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN 158, 2005 


Pre-process handling and operationsFreezing preservation of fruits can only help retain the inherent quality present initiallyin  a  product  since  the  process  does  not  improve  the  quality  characteristics  of  rawmaterials.  Therefore,  quality  level  of  the  raw  materials  prior  to  freezing  is  the  majorconsideration  for  successful  freezing.  Washing  and  cutting  generally  results  in  losseswhen  applied  after  thawing.  Thus,  fruits  should  be  prepared  prior  to  the  freezingprocess in terms of peeling, slicing or cutting. Freezing preservation does not requirespecific  unit  operations  for  cleaning,  rinsing,  sorting,  peeling,  and  cutting  of  fruits(Spiess, 1984).


美國食品法規
21 CFR PART 117

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

Subpart A--General Provisions
   § 117.1 - Applicability and status.
   § 117.3 - Definitions.
   § 117.4 - Qualifications of individuals who manufacture, process, pack, or hold food.
   § 117.5 - Exemptions.
   § 117.7 - Applicability of subparts C, D, and G of this part to a facility solely engaged in the storage of unexposed packaged food.
   § 117.8 - Applicability of subpart B of this part to the off-farm packing and holding of raw agricultural commodities.
   § 117.9 - Records required for this subpart.
Subpart B--Current Good Manufacturing Practice
   § 117.10 - Personnel.
   § 117.20 - Plant and grounds.
   § 117.35 - Sanitary operations.
   § 117.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.
   § 117.40 - Equipment and utensils.
   § 117.80 - Processes and controls.
   § 117.93 - Warehousing and distribution.
   § 117.95 - Holding and distribution of human food by-products for use as animal food.
   § 117.110 - Defect action levels.
Subpart C--Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls
   § 117.126 - Food safety plan.
   § 117.130 - Hazard analysis.
   § 117.135 - Preventive controls.
   § 117.136 - Circumstances in which the owner, operator, or agent in charge of a manufacturing/processing facility is not required to implement a preventive control.
   § 117.137 - Provision of assurances required under 117.136(a)(2), (3), and (4).
   § 117.139 - Recall plan.
   § 117.140 - Preventive control management components.
   § 117.145 - Monitoring.
   § 117.150 - Corrective actions and corrections.
   § 117.155 - Verification.
   § 117.160 - Validation.
   § 117.165 - Verification of implementation and effectiveness.
   § 117.170 - Reanalysis.
   § 117.180 - Requirements applicable to a preventive controls qualified individual and a qualified auditor.
   § 117.190 - Implementation records required for this subpart.
Subpart D--Modified Requirements
   § 117.201 - Modified requirements that apply to a qualified facility.
   § 117.206 - Modified requirements that apply to a facility solely engaged in the storage of unexposed packaged food.
Subpart E--Withdrawal of a Qualified Facility Exemption
   § 117.251 - Circumstances that may lead FDA to withdraw a qualified facility exemption.
   § 117.254 - Issuance of an order to withdraw a qualified facility exemption.
   § 117.257 - Contents of an order to withdraw a qualified facility exemption.
   § 117.260 - Compliance with, or appeal of, an order to withdraw a qualified facility exemption.
   § 117.264 - Procedure for submitting an appeal.
   § 117.267 - Procedure for requesting an informal hearing.
   § 117.270 - Requirements applicable to an informal hearing.
   § 117.274 - Presiding officer for an appeal and for an informal hearing.
   § 117.277 - Timeframe for issuing a decision on an appeal.
   § 117.280 - Revocation of an order to withdraw a qualified facility exemption.
   § 117.284 - Final agency action.
   § 117.287 - Reinstatement of a qualified facility exemption that was withdrawn.
Subpart F--Requirements Applying to Records That Must Be Established and Maintained
   § 117.301 - Records subject to the requirements of this subpart.
   § 117.305 - General requirements applying to records.
   § 117.310 - Additional requirements applying to the food safety plan.
   § 117.315 - Requirements for record retention.
   § 117.320 - Requirements for official review.
   § 117.325 - Public disclosure.
   § 117.330 - Use of existing records.
   § 117.335 - Special requirements applicable to a written assurance.
Subpart G--Supply-Chain Program
   § 117.405 - Requirement to establish and implement a supply-chain program.
   § 117.410 - General requirements applicable to a supply-chain program.
   § 117.415 - Responsibilities of the receiving facility.
   § 117.420 - Using approved suppliers.
   § 117.425 - Determining appropriate supplier verification activities (including determining the frequency of conducting the activity).
   § 117.430 - Conducting supplier verification activities for raw materials and other ingredients.
   § 117.435 - Onsite audit.
   § 117.475 - Records documenting the supply-chain program.